and Tsunami of 26 December 2004
This is the fourth largest earthquake in the world since 1900 and is the largest since the 1964 Prince William Sound, Alaska earthquake. The earthquake itself caused severe damage and casualties in northern Sumatra, Indonesia and in the Nicobar Islands, India. The earthquake casualties are included with the tsunami statistics below.
|Indonesia||IX||at Banda Aceh|
|IV||at Medan and Sampali|
|III||at Bukittinggi, Parapat and Payakumbuh|
|India||VII||at Port Blair, Andaman Islands|
|III||at Bengaluru and Vishakhapatnam|
|Felt||at Bangalore, Bhubaneshwar, Calcutta and Kochi|
|Malaysia||V||at Gelugor Estate|
|IV||at Sungai Ara|
|III||at Alor Setar, George Town, Kampong Tanjong Bunga, Kuala Lumpur and Kulim|
|Thailand||V||at Hat Yai|
|III||at Chiang Mai and Phuket|
|Sri Lanka||II||at Kandy and in other parts of Sri Lanka|
|Maldives||IV||at Male (nearly 2500 km from the epicenter)|
|Guam||Felt||by people in a high rise building at Hagatna (more than 5400 km from the epicenter)|
The tsunami from this earthquake caused extreme destruction in South Asia, was recorded nearly world-wide and killed more people than any tsunami in recorded history. In total, at least 283,100 people were killed, 14,100 are missing and 1,126,900 were displaced by the earthquake and tsunami:
At least 108,100 people were killed, 127,700 are missing and presumed dead and 426,800 were displaced by the earthquake and tsunami in Aceh and Sumatera Utara Provinces, Indonesia. About 70 percent of the small-scale fishing fleet was destroyed. Tsunami runup heights of more than 30 meters were observed along the west coast of Sumatra.
At least 30,900 people were killed, 5,400 missing and 552,600 displaced by the tsunami in Sri Lanka, where wave heights were estimated to be 5-10 meters. About 66 percent of the fishing fleet was destroyed and 10 of 12 major fishing harbors in the country had some damage.
At least 10,700 people were killed, 5,600 missing and 112,500 displaced in Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Pondicherry, Tamil Nadu and Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. Wave heights were estimated to be more than 20 meters in the Andaman Islands and 10 meters on the east coast of India.
At least 5,300 people were killed, 8,400 injured and 3,100 missing along the west coast of Thailand, where wave heights were estimated to be as high as 3-5 meters in the Phuket area.
The tsunami also caused casualties and/or damage in the following countries:
|Somalia||at least 150 people killed and about 5,000 displaced.|
|Maldives||82 people killed, 26 missing and more than 21,600 displaced.|
|Malaysia||68 people killed, 6 missing and about 4,200 displaced.|
|Myanmar||90 people killed, 10 missing and 3,200 displaced.|
|Tanzania||10 people killed.|
|Seychelles||3 people killed.|
|Bangladesh||2 people killed.|
|Kenya||1 person killed.|
|Madagascar||about 1,000 people displaced.|
|Mozambique||tsunami was observed, but no damage reported.|
In Australia, the tsunami caused minor damage at Geraldton and Mangles Bay. A 30 centimeter wave was observed at Penguin Island. People were swept into the ocean at Delambre Island and Geographe Bay, but all survived. The tsunami was observed at Busselton.
K. Abe has computed a tsunami magnitude (Mt) of 9.1 for this event.
Landslides and approximately 2 meters of subsidence were observed in Sumatra. A mud volcano became active near Baratang, Andaman Islands on December 28. Gas emissions were reported in Arakan, Myanmar. Seiches occurred in Jharkhand, Maharashtra, Orissa and West Bengal, India and as far away as Tulsa County, Oklahoma, United States. Water level fluctuations occurred in wells as far away as Florida, Nebraska and Virginia, United States.
U.N. Office for Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, Situation Reports and
ReliefWeb website as of 2 Feb 2005. For updates, see
A. Rabinovich and J. Gower, Institute of Ocean Sciences, Canada, website http://www-sci.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/osap/projects/tsunami/default_e.htm.
NOAA, West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center, webpage on the Indian Ocean tsunami, http://wcatwc.arh.noaa.gov/IndianOSite/IndianO12-26-04.htm.
K. Abe and Y. Tsuji, et al., Earthquake Research Institute, University of Tokyo, Special Event Page, at http://www.eri.u-tokyo.ac.jp/topics/SUMATRA2004/index-e.html.
S. Martin, Amateur Seismic Centre, Pune, India, Special Event page, at http://asc-india.org/events/041226_bob.htm.
V. Dent, University of Western Australia, Asian Tsunami effects in Western Australia, at http://www.seismicity.segs.uwa.edu.au/welcome/asian_tsunami_in_wa.
CNN website, at http://www.cnn.com/.
BBC World Service website, at http://www.bbc.co.uk/worldservice/index.shtml.
Felt reports contributed to USGS "Did you feel it?" webpages, at: http://pasadena.wr.usgs.gov/shake/ous/index.html.